April 30, 2018

My main focus on this assignment is talking about how we depict manual labor, and how our perceptions of it lead to unjust treatment of people that do manual labor. Specifically, in latin America. I want to show how the upper classes tend to mistreat and take advantage of people who do manual labor based on what we think of them. Also, I want to talk about how these perceptions can be changed. I plan to give the example of Anielka, a woman who used to be the housekeeper of my house when I was younger. She was too smart to be housekeeper but did not have resources to do anything else, so my father sent her to high school to complete it, and now she is starting university.


“Barriers to performance can be established by individuals, thus providing “external” attributions for failure, referred to as self-handicapping, which enables individuals to blame the barriers for the under-performance, rather than deficits in motivation or talent.”

Flanagan, J., & Green, R. (2011). STEREOTYPE THREAT IN MANUAL LABOR SETTINGS FOR HISPANIC AND CAUCASIAN PARTICIPANTS. Journal Of Organizational Culture, Communications & Conflict15(2), 111-132.

Often colloquially referred to as nannies, maids, and housekeepers—or in Spanish as muchachas, nanas, and empleadas—domestic workers come from poorer backgrounds and work in wealthier households. Often also from ethnic or visible minorities, they make up over 15 percent of the economically active female population in Latin America, or twelve million in absolute numbers, and their services enable the well-off to work outside the home and to engage in leisure-time activities that they consider more desirable than household work and the daily routine of child care.

This dynamic is a by-product of highly unequal societies, which produce a demand for the outsourcing of domestic activities as well as a ready supply of inexpensive labor. Driven not only by class-based views but also by views of the appropriate status for what is traditionally considered “women’s work,” the state has—in Latin America as well as much of the rest of the world—mandated longer work hours and lower benefits for this sector, basically ensuring that the servant is always available, outside of sleep, to serve her employers. This has, in effect, subsidized a cheap labor force for higher-income families.

Blofield, M. (2012). Care Work and Class : Domestic Workers’ Struggle for Equal Rights in Latin America. University Park, Pa: Penn State University Press.




April 27

What are some of the stereotypes about manual labor or white-collar work (which Crawford calls knowledge work)? What are the social scripts that teach us to define and evaluate this type of labor? In your view, are these attitudes accurate or fair? Why or why not? How do you apply such concepts to your own experiences with work? How much of conversation or dialogue do you encounter regarding the relationship between work and social class in general? You can talk about the ways cultural norms around work are intimately entwined with cultural norms around school by exploring how there exists (or not?)

a stereotype would be that a person with a white collar job has more education than a person who does manual labor. also, it is believed that people who domanual labor is less wealthy than a person who has a white collar job. in my opinion it isnt fair because a person doesnt necessarily work on manual labor because of lack of education or knowledge or wealth.INstead some people simply enjoy it more. some poeple in face that have a lot of wealth simply find white collar jobs to be boring and depressing so they decide to start woorking on somehing more dynamid such as repair of cars for example. nevertheless, it is true, at least in my country, that often times people whodo manual labor dont hve the resources to do a whitecollar job but even if this is smetimes true i dont think theyre should be a stereotype surrounfing it. i have never worked on manual labor, only jobs in big businesses. the closest ive gotten to manual labor is babysitting, and i did it for fun.  work and social class is a vert bg topic in nicaragua because of the arge amount of people with no work, who are mostly in the low social class. cultural norms around work are the same in school because kids learn the example the parents set for them. if a parent is very judgemental the kid will most likely be so too. therefore, there are in both places discrimination and disrepstect.


April 25th 2018

The first job I had was an internship at an Ad Agency in Nicaragua called Target Ogilvy when I was 13. In Target, I was part of the productions department, where we would basically come up with advertising campaigns for numerous well known brands, then we would have to take it to the design team, contact providers about prices, send the complete idea with designs and budget to the brand, and then they would decide whether they wanted us to execute it or not. Target was a little bit challenging for many reasons. First of all, I had to be in the office very early, and then leave at night. Also, sometimes they would assign me a task that would take me days to complete, and after working so hard, the companies would reject the proposal. This was often hard for me because sometimes I would get very excited working on an idea and I would do research about it and complete all of the steps of production, and then the brands would reject it. Another moment that was hard for me was when we had to plan and execute in a week a party for 3,000 attendees for the opening of a new bank in Nicaragua. Since the party was at night, I had to work the party until it was late. At the end, I was very tired and my presence was requested numerous times. I think that having a very demanding job means that your boss thinks you are very intelligent and can handle the pressure. Furthermore, a successful business would never give so much responsibility to a person that is not trustworthy or not intelligent enough.


April 18

In my hometown Managua Nicaragua, homelessness is an extremely big issue. Being the second poorest country in the Western Hemisphere, there are people with no homes everywhere. The population of Nicaragua is 6.15 million. About 8.5% of Nicaragua’s population lives on less than 1.25 dollars a day, and 42.5% live below the national poverty line (UNDP, 2015). Homeless people are one of the most marginalized groups in Nicaragua. In addition to living in extreme poverty, they suffer from a strong family and social disconnection. Many people in Nicaragua have been either living under extreme poverty and homelessness for many years due to the many earthquakes, and hurricanes in Nicaragua, as well as the civil war and the revolution. After the war, many people were left with psychological issues, so many homeless people have mental problems.

Nicaragua lacks data on numbers, characteristics, circumstances and needs of people experiencing homelessness. This lack of information has very negative consequences, the most important one being lack of consciousness, and awareness.


April 9th,2018

Video Essay Planning


Alexa Tapia


Isabel Benito


For this assignment, we chose Marketing since that is both of our majors. Alexa will be responsible for the video editing, and Isabel will focus on the research.

  • We will interview Nicole NGuyen, who was Alexa’s BUS 100 professor, and is also the head of the marketing department.
  • Isabel will investigate and do her research in the database of the schools library, finding scholarly articles, journals, magazines, and create an extensive research around the subject of marketing.
  • We will make the video entertaining and upbeat–and avoid all monotone voices and dull images and videos
  • We will show possible jobs a person can land with a marketing major or a concentration in marketing.
  • We will also interview Javier Benito who is a CMO at the YUM Brands which is in charge of many fast food chains such as: KFC, Taco Bell and Pizza Hut.
  • We will gather information revolving around what his day to day job is like, what abilities one must have, what problems one may face.



April 4th 2018

We watched a video a girl named Jill created for her application to Tufts University. The purpose of the video is to share with the admissions office things about her that make her “one of a kind”. She shows the things she feels passionate about by composing a stop motion video that is very entertaining. In my opinion, the way she did it was very creative because you can learn more about her by seeing her visuals than listening to her voice speaking about the things she likes. Also, she uses “…” after she says specific things, and this leads to the audience feeling curious as to what is coming next. Furthermore, she is very straightforward. She uses just key words to represent what she likes. She makes it concise and simple rather than going on and on about the things she likes. The college video essay was good and effective because not only did the student make it colorful and simple to understand, be she also managed to make it fun. The student put the song “Intro” by the XX, which gave her presentation a beautiful ambience and a fun energy. The using of paper and big writing led the audience to pay close attention to what she was trying to say, which I think made her presentation an A+.


March 27, 2018

Pacific Collegiate School:

  • 100% students graduate
  • Students on average take 7 AP tests
  • Student to Teacher Ratio is 20:1
  • Average class size is 16
  • SAT score has risen to top 10th percent of 1 percent among all public schools nationally (even though its supposedly a “lottery” school”)
  • Less than 10% of students are of low income
  • Families are asked to donate $3000 and 40 hours of volunteering a year

Phillips Academy:

  • They don’t post GPAs
  • They focus on group work rather than competition
  • Boarding School
  • Members of National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS), The Association of Boarding Schools (TABS)
  • more than 150 electives include student-faculty research, independent projects, and immersive learning opportunities locally and abroad.
  • Offers financial aid
  • Need blind admission policy
  • 1 of 157 Best High Schools for STEM in Massachusetts
  • 1 of 109 Best Private High Schools in Massachusetts
  • 1 of 102 Best College Prep Private High Schools in Massachusetts
  • Phillips Academy receives 3,000 applications each year but only accepts about 13%.








Mission high school

By the text, According to the scores, Mission High is among the lowest-performing 5 percent of schools in the country, and it has consistently failed to meet the ever-rising benchmarks set by the federal No Child Left Behind Act. The law mandates universal “proficiency” in math and reading by 2014—a deadline that weighs heavily on educators around the nation, since schools that don’t meet it face stiff penalties.

One of the most diverse high schools

925 students holding 47 different passports.Majority are latino, African American, and Asian American.

According to US News and World Report, 91% of Mission’s student body is “of color,” with 77% of the student body coming from an economically disadvantaged household, determined by student eligibility for California’s Reduced-price meal program.


Isa Benito:

When comparing my former high school Tepeyac, to Andover there is a large difference in regards to academic executions. In tepeyac, teacher and students were like family and had a high level of trust with each other, classrooms almost were a little too relaxed. Academically, it is clear to me that Andover holds a much larger intellectual capability that Tepeyac, just by reading the facts of the internet and the cost yearly to be in that school. There is a black and white contrast of what school is better academically, but I have to say I loved Tepeyac. Tepeyac provided me with so many friends and loving teachers, endless classes and amazing experiences while playing soccer in the large field we had. Many of the students that attended Tepeyac never applied to schools in the US…Actually I was the only one in my class to apply to a school in the US and another girl applied to a school in Norway. The level of students ambitions are more nacional than international, and that was something hard for me because it was not the same system as schools in the US that practice SAT’s and provide you with tutors, I had to find one on my own.


Nate Centeno:

In comparison to my High School both of these schools are 20x better because of not only the test scores on the SAT but the difficulty that entails while taking coursework. They both offer advanced courses that my school didn’t even offer. My school says its “college preparatory” but in comparison to these two schools we shouldn’t even be considered such. These schools offer not only a variety of coursework but offer opportunities that most students in High School will never experience. These schools are both selective with the students that attend even though it says “lottery.” My old High School accepted everyone because they needed the money and the rep.


Alexa Tapia

In comparison to these schools, Lincoln International Academy, the school from which I graduated in Nicaragua, is not very good. In Nicaragua, Lincoln is ranked Top 2 in the country. However, it is proportional to what is offered in Nicaragua. It is a College preparatory school; it offers AP classes and many electives. Nevertheless, it is not as prestigious as these. To get in, the process is very simple, while on these it is an extensive process that almost resembles that of a University. In my school, we have many many students that are currently in Ivy leagues and prestigious schools. However, in Lincoln the focus is to send students to study abroad for college. On these, the aim is basically going to an Ivy league or a top school in the nation.


There are such a big difference between my high school and Andover. My High school is called High School affiliated to Nanjing Normal University. Rather than taking college entrance examination, I take in the IB diploma program. We only have 50 students in one grade (10,11 and 12). So our classroom is super small and our whole area is just two floors. It is almost the best school in Nanjing, I really like it even though IB diploma is a bit too hard and we need to take TOEFL and SAT tests outside of class. This is a program for preparing for college education which is really good.


march 26th,2018

Class, culture and race have affected my individual learning in many different occasions. Nevertheless, it is not really that impactful in my life. I do not feel like I have been in situations where I felt at a disadvantage based on my race, culture or class. However, I do feel sometimes that the fact that my race speaks spanish leads me to make ESL mistakes on my reports, and I am still graded as any other native english speaker. This, I believe, would be the only negative impact of my class, culture or race. I believe that my class, culture and race make me a person with lots of knowledge. I think that having nicaraguan and American culture enables me to have more than one point of view when it comes to learning. I have general knowledge of latin america and the USA because of my mixed culture. The only implication this has on my family and me is that we discuss topics from both cultures.


march 5th 2018

I decided to analyze different websites that showed their College Rankings. I used Niche, US News, and Top Universities. By looking at these websites, the first thing you notice is that the three of them have different top 3s. Niche’s is: Stanford, MIT, Harvard. The one from US News is: Princeton, Harvard, University of Chicago. Lastly, Top Universities lists: MIT, Stanford, Harvard. For most of these websites, you will find all Ivy leagues in the first few spots. I believe University rankings and quality education are not really related. First of all, you do not really know what criteria each one is using. According to Prep Scholar, there are many different criteria used for rankings. Some examples are retention, Class Size, SAT Scores, Faculty salaries, etc. Many of these colleges are so old that they have been on the rankings for years. The Ivy League schools are perfect examples. Therefore, they could very easily lower their standards, hire less qualifies teachers, and not really pay attention to what the students want, and still be in the top of the rankings. This is because even if the quality of education were to go down in these top ranked schools, the mere fact that you have a degree from one of these schools is good enough to help you find a job. I have a friend that goes to Harvard, and he has very good grades, was not the top of his class in High school, and all of his tests have big curves, while my friend that goes to Pennsylvania State University struggles a lot more with the same courses my friend from Harvard is taking. This is because Penn State does not offer the same curves as Harvard does. Many people say this about Ivy league schools. It is a very known claim that they curve their students. If this is the case, then it is clear why they do so good in classes and are able to keep a good retention rate for example.

An article on The Atlantic by Eleanor Barkhorn, a writer and alumni of Princeton, proves my point. The article titled “So What If Everyone at Harvard Gets an A?” discusses the idea of grade inflation in these schools. She talks about her personal experience and how she worked very hard in High School to get into Princeton, and when she finally got in, she stopped trying. She wouldn’t take the best notes, and did not feel as challenge. Instead, she claims that “A lot of us had pushed ourselves hard in high school to get in to a great school and saw our time at Princeton as a reward, not an opportunity to push ourselves again, even harder. The university’s relatively lax grading policies only encouraged that mentality.” (Barkhorn) Because of things like this, you can conclude that rankings are not representative of quality education.


Barkhorn, E. (2013, December 05). So What If Everyone at Harvard Gets an A? Retrieved March 05, 2018, from https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2013/12/so-what-if-everyone-at-harvard-gets-an-a/282053/

Berkman, J. (n.d.). SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Retrieved March 05, 2018, from https://blog.prepscholar.com/should-you-trust-college-ranking-lists

Grant, A. (2016, September 10). Why We Should Stop Grading Students on a Curve. Retrieved March 05, 2018, from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/11/opinion/sunday/why-we-should-stop-grading-students-on-a-curve.html

Oppenheim, N. D. (2001, March 05). Grading on the Harvard Curve. Retrieved March 05, 2018, from http://www.weeklystandard.com/grading-on-the-harvard-curve/article/12700

2018 Best Colleges in America. (n.d.). Retrieved March 05, 2018, from https://www.niche.com/colleges/search/best-colleges/





February 26, 2018

Food and Social Class

Since my country’s main source of income is the primary goods market, food in my culture is mostly based on things that grow in the country. The most common meals are Gallopinto, which is mixing rice and beans, tajadas con queso, which are fried plantains and cheese, Tortillas made with corn, and Nacatamal, which is pork with rice, potatoes, flour mixture and other components. As you can see, all of these foods are made with things that grow in tropical countries. I think they represent the fact that in Nicaragua due to the large percentage of poverty, meals are not too luxurious or intricate. Rather, they are just meals that are easily made in a low income household by planting all of the components. Nacatamal is a perfect example of how food is representative of the old culture. Nacatamal originated in pre columbine times when the homeowners didn’t know what food to feed their hired help so they would mix the leftovers of their food and give it to them. Now, Nicaraguans forget that origin and eating Nacatamal has become something reserved for Sunday mornings eaten together with fresh bread and coffee with milk while enjoying the company of your family.  In my family, however, since we are more “americanized” we balance those meals with meat, chicken, hamburgers, or pretty much what you eat anywhere else. In my family eating healthy is very endorsed, so mostly in my house we eat things such as salmon, steak, vegetables, and salads.