Dr. Marco Tavanti is an international development scholar whose experience stretches over 25 years and whose work has taken him to more than 18 countries in Europe, East Africa, Southeast Asia, and Latin America. Dr. Tavanti’s teaching in sustainable development, leadership ethics, intercultural diversity, and NGO management is grounded in Jesuit values and his scholarship is an embodiment of the University’s mission to be of service to humankind. Professor Tavanti is the Nonprofit Administration Program Director.
The Michael O’Neill Nonprofit Leadership and Management Education Award is a named after USF Professor Emeritus Dr. Michael O’Neill, a recognized scholar in nonprofit leadership and management education who founded the MNA Program in 1983, the first nonprofit-specific graduate program of its kind. The award was instituted on April 25, 2018 during the 35th Anniversary Celebrations of the Master of Nonprofit Administration (MNA) Program. The Award recognizes exceptional leaders who demonstrate excellence in nonprofit leadership and management with educational strategies, systemic solutions and sustainable impact.
About Prof. Michael O’Neill, Ed.D.
Dr. Michael O’Neill, Ed.D.is recognized as the father of nonprofit management education (NME) field. He demonstrated his leadership through the founding of the Master of Nonprofit Administration (MNA), the first graduate degree of this kind. He also founded the Institute of Nonprofit Organization Management (INOM) and served as President of theAssociation for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA). He was also instrumental in the establishment of Nonprofit Academic Centers Council (NACC), the accrediting body for NME programs.
THE MICHAEL O’NEILL AWARD RECIPIENTS
Liz Jackson-Simpson is CEO of Success Centers. We recognize her exceptional example of a committed nonprofit leader providing systemic solutions for at-risk youth and disenfranchised communities in the San Francisco Bay Area.
Alexa Cortez Culwell,MNA
Ms. Alexa Cortez Culwell, MNA is the co-founder of Open Impact and a longtime philanthropy advisor, speaker, and facilitator. For the past 25 years she has built and managed foundations and philanthropic initiatives for successful entrepreneurs, including serving as the founding CEO of the Charles and Helen Schwab Foundation. She recently completed a four-year appointment as a visiting practitioner at Stanford University’s Center on Philanthropy and Civil Society.
Jeanne Bell, MNA
Ms. Jeanne Bell, MNA is the former CEO of CompassPointand current Director of the Nonprofit Quarterly NPQ‘s Advancing Practice program. She also serves in the Advisory Board of University of San Francisco’s MNA program. She is a recognized author of numerous articles on nonprofit leadership and management including The Sustainability Mindset (Jossey-Bass, 2015).
THE FUTURE OF NONPROFITS EVENT
The 2019 Award Ceremony will be on Saturday May 4 during the THE FUTURE OF NONPROFIT LEADERSHIP, an annual event of the Master of Nonprofit Administration (MNA) at University of San Francisco’s School of Management featuring professionals and expert leaders reflecting on current and future trends relevant to nonprofit organizations, philanthropy and social enterprise solutions for the needs of our communities.
A panel discussion representing community leaders, MNA alumni, student, faculty and advisors will respond to Liz’s remarks in their view of the sector. The Panel will be moderated by Sergio Cuellar, MNA ’17, Program Manager, Sierra Health Foundation and will include Sheryl Evans Davis, Executive Director, San Francisco Human Rights Commission and Karen Campbell, MNA Student & President, Nonprofit Student Council.
The event includes a networking reception to celebrate our graduates and review the nonprofit sector analyses of students completed in their capstone projects and featured in printed posters. These represent the experiential learning and project based values of the program that develop competent value leaders while also contributing to the capacity and effectiveness of nonprofit organizations.
Please join us to connect with nonprofit leaders, sector professionals, MNA alumni and graduating students who represent the Jesuit mission of our university to “change the world from here.”
Experiential learning, community engagement and project based education are probably the most important values behind the MNA Program. Our best practices in integrating professional experience and community have been recognized as emerging innovations and effective practices for nonprofit management education (NME), a field pioneered by Dr. Michael O’Neil in the MNA Program and his research.
In the accreditation process with the Nonprofit Academic Center Council (NACC) this feature of the MNA program was recognized as distinction of this degree as a learning beyond the classroom and beyond just service. In an article recently published by Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership (JNEL) the advantage and strategic process of of integrating a Nonprofit Management Education (NME) programs like ours into experiential learning is crucial.
This is an excerpt from the Tavanti & Wilp JNEL 2018 article on the integration of Experiential Learning and Community Engagement into Nonprofit Management Education. These reflections and classifications should help Higher Education Institutions to thing strategically on how to integrate High Impact Practices (HIPS) into their curricula and programs.
“Learning through real-world experiences is a valued pedagogy in higher education and an essential method for educating effective nonprofit managers in the 21st century. The practical fields of management education and nonprofit management education (NME) aim to develop appropriate skills, competencies, and mind-sets relevant to administrative, organizational, and leadership careers. These objectives cannot be sufficiently accomplished through in-class lectures and activities only. They require more hands-on and community-centered approaches that increase student exposure to real-world situations while benefiting the capacity development needs of nonprofit organizations (NPOs) and the sector. When the NME field started offering nonprofit-specific graduate programs in the United States with the University of San Francisco’s Master in Nonprofit Organization Management (MPA/NOM in 1983), later renamed Master of Nonprofit Administration (MNA in 1985), the need for experiential learning was not as urgent as today. Most of the students in the early development of the field were professionals with several years of experience in the sector. They sought theories to understand their own practices, along with university recognition for their leadership advancements (O’Neill & Fletcher, 1998; O’Neill & Young, 1988). The priority in these early years involved identifying the proper curriculum content rather than reflecting on the most appropriate pedagogical methods of delivery. In addition, because the students were already bringing their experiences into the classroom reflections and exercises, the need to utilize more community-centered methods was less of a priority. Michael O’Neill, along with Dennis R. Young and other NME pioneers, argued that the field had emerged to prepare those who were currently working in it or were preparing to be leaders and managers of private not-for-profit organizations, while educating public and private sector leaders and managers to interact more effectively with nonprofits (Dobkin Hall, O’Neill, Vinokur-Kaplan, Young, & Lane, 2001). Today, the distinction between very experienced and less experienced professional students is a major characteristic of the student population. This demands more strategic attention about how instructors teach and students learn, while providing more opportunities for university–community partnerships for capacity development. Properly designed experiential education activities, courses, and programs are fundamental for advancing the professional capacity of the sector and its future leaders (Cacciamani, 2017; Fenton & Gallant, 2016).
[…] “In graduate NME, experiential learning is and should be more than active learning or service learning. It is about working with NPOs to increase their organizational capacity, while accompanying students to become more effective in their competencies and capacity to consult, assess, and collaborate. The current shifts from experiential learning to experiential education and from service learning to community-engaged learning show the contributions of these models. The strategies and contextualization of the experiences in the University of San Francisco’s MNA Program can be adapted by other institutions and NME programs. They can do this by considering a community-centered model of education (Model 1), by considering a pedagogical praxis of students and community transformation (Model 2), and by designing programs that are relevant to local and global communities (Model 3).”
[…] “Active learning, problem-based learning, project-based learning, service learning, and place-based learning are some of the more well-known methods associated with experiential education (Godfrey, 1999). With the growth of NME programs internationally, there is also a clearer need for educating professionals not only with theoretical, philosophical, and historical notions but also with feasible projects and activities benefiting the learner and the partnering organizations.
Experiential learning is a growing field characterized by specific applied methods, a value-based philosophy, and shared benefits across teaching, learning, and communities. “Experiential education is a philosophy that informs many methodologies in which educators purposefully engage with learners in direct experience and focused reflection in order to increase knowledge, develop skills, clarify values, and develop people’s capacity to contribute to their communities. (Association for Experiential Education, para 4). This definition is not exclusive to formal education, but it is relevant to a general approach to teaching, learning, and engagement. A wide diversity of methods, strategies, and approaches relate to practices of experiential learning across disciplines. However, such a diversity is also a source of confusion in the field.
Wurdinger and Carlson (2010) provide a useful overview of the most effective approaches to experiential learning:
Active Learning: A group of experiential learning activities associated with classroom strategies such as role playing, simulation, debates, presentations, and case studies.
Problem–Based Learning: Inquiry-based learning activities through in-depth investigations, self-directed research, and group-work inquiries.
Project–Based Learning: A type of experiential learning that stimulates students’ interests while developing their project management capacity, technology, and research skills and analytical presentation capacity. It can be individual or group work, teacher directed, student directed, or a combination of the two.
Service Learning: A well-known approach to teaching and learning that often includes planning (community needs), action (service), and reflection (learning). The emphasis is on learning. It can be student centered or community based.
Placed-Based Learning: A learning focused on a particular place or context. It is a holistic approach to education that uses the immersion into a context to support the vitality of a community. It can be far (global) or near (local).
Tavanti, M. & Wilp, E. A. (2018). Experiential-By-Design: Integrating Experiential Learning Strategies into Nonprofit Management Education.Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership (JNEL), Special Issue of the Bi-Annual Nonprofit Academic Center Council Conference, 1-23. ISSN: 2157-0604.
Learn more about how our MNA program students learn through collaborative projects with nonprofit organizations and social enterprises in the Capstone Projects and Practicums for social impact analysis here http://usfblogs.usfca.edu/nonprofit/research/
Did you know that nonprofit are at the forefront of social and sustainable innovation? In spite the persisting misconceptions of what nonprofits really are and the studied nonprofit cycle of starvation, nonprofit organizations are cradles for remarkable innovative solutions to solve our community, social and global problems.
The Rockefeller Foundation has been contributing to assess and scale nonprofit sustainable and social innovation. We appreciate the many heroes (mostly SHEroes) that become founders of initiatives and organizations to respond to specific social/environmental needs. But we need to go beyond Heroprenuership and tackle the systemic issues that prevent innovation to really be socially relevant, community beneficial and reflective of sustainable values. Dan Pallotta’s challenges to stagnant ‘charity’ solutions to systemic problems remain relevant today in the nonprofit world. Innovation for the social and common good goes beyond narrow approaches of voluntarism and philanthropy but also of businesses and governance.
Big problems needs innovative and cross-sector solutions! They also require innovation in the way we structure and legislate organizations that should fulfill triple bottom lines for social (people), environmental (planet) and economic (prosperity), but also for policies (policies) and sustainable impact (partnerships). There are many example that already do this. One example of nonprofit social/environmental and technological innovation is The Ocean CleanUp, an initiative started with a high school student, Boyan Slat. The objective of the organization(s) is to offer concrete, innovative and feasible solution to trash that accumulates “in 5 ocean garbage patches, the largest one being the Great Pacific Garbage Patch, located between Hawaii and California. If left to circulate, the plastic will impact our ecosystems, health and economies. Solving it requires a combination of closing the source, and cleaning up what has already accumulated in the ocean.” These solutions aim at attract nonprofit donations but also social/sustainable business investments and government commitments for the oceans, along technological advancements, volunteer engagement and social consciousness.
Donations for The Ocean CleanUp can be in US dollars through the The Ocean Cleanup North Pacific Foundation, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit foundation registered in the USA or in Euros through the Stichting The Ocean Cleanup, an ANBI foundation registered in the Netherlands. Both foundations pursuing the same goal of the organization. An ambitious project of this kind requires to go beyond innovation into scaling and impact and sustainable impact. Learn more about this project and how the technological innovation and scientific discoveries work in parallel with government policies, human behaviors and business opportunities to make the world and our oceans prosperous for life to thrive for all.
In 2018 the Master of Nonprofit Administration (MNA Program) at University of San Francisco celebrated its 35 years of existence since its foundation in 1983 by Dr. Michael O’Neill. The 35th MNA Anniversary Celebration of April 25th featured a panel reflecting on the accomplishments and challenges of nonprofit management education in the 21st Century. This video shares some of the highlights of the events and the valued reflections provided provided by our alumni Jeanne Bell (MNA ’01) and Alexa Cortez Culwell (MNA ’95).
The following are Dr. Marco Tavanti’s opening remarks to the April 25th Anniversary Celebrations
Thank you and welcome to this Panel Discussion and Celebration of the Master of Nonprofit Administration Program Celebration of its 35 Years of Excellence and Social Innovation. We are honored today to have a panel of experts – that will introduce shortly — and that will help us to understand some of the main challenge and opportunities in nonprofit education, community responsibility and capacity development. After an award ceremony we will continue our networking celebrations upstairs in the 5th floor AGORA where you can meet MNA alumni, friends and students while also viewing MNA Capstone Posters samples and Infographics from the annual Academic Global Immersion Program on Refugee. In the meantime (and to earn your drinks) you should also respond to the survey in front of you. On the table you can also find a card where you can formulate a question you may have for the panelists.
The Ignatian Pedagogical Paradigm, is a Jesuit method for teaching and learning embedded in our current MNA degree. It starts with observing the reality (seen it also through immersions and experiential learning), followed by the analysis (often through multidisciplinary perspectives and mixed methodologies to understand complex and unjust realities of marginalization), and the action into making the world a better place such as the USF slogan (Change the World from Here…). What was known in Latin America as VER, JULGAR, ACTUAR, has been integrated by impact evaluation and contextualization into our local/global and diverse communities. More recently this method included a new dimension CELEBRAR, to celebrate our accomplishments. Our celebration of the 35th anniversary of the MNA program reflects all these paradigms and invites us to take time to pause, observe, reflect, a celebrate the past and future of nonprofit management education.
In 1983, Dr. Michael O’Neill had the pioneering vision of designing a graduate degree to develop managerial and leadership capacity for nonprofit professionals. The MNA Program was accompanied by the research activities of the Institute for Nonprofit Organization Management (INOM) which followed other academic innovations such as the establishment of Nonprofit Academic Center Council (NACC) in 1981 and the creation of the Association of Voluntary Action Scholars later renamed as Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA) in 1971. Dr. Michael O’Neill is known as the father of nonprofit management education (NME) that emerged as a field of study through these and other pioneering activities in which he was deeply involved.
While Dr. Michael O’Neill worked on developing the field of NME in the West Coast University of San Francisco, one of his colleague in the East Coast, Prof. Lester Salamon at the Washington DC Urban Institute (now at John Hopkins University) contributed to understand the scope and structure of the nonprofit sector. Today, nonprofit/nongovernmental/charities/philanthropic and voluntary institutions are major forces for good contributing to almost 6% of the American economy and 1/6 of the labor force in California. Internationally, the third sector institutions include a wider spectrum of organizations including hybrid social enterprises and social innovations solutions for the emerging world social economy. Our MNA students know about these developments and also know that both social and economic impact needs to be equally considered and measured to understand the true value of the sector.
In the last 35 years, the Program has generated 612 alumni in key leadership positions and influential roles for the advancement of the capacity, impact and sustainability of the sector. We are honored today to have with us two of these MNA alumni, Alexa Cortes Culwell (MNA 95), Co-Founder of Open Impact and author of The Giving Code and the Giving Journey and Jeanne Bell (MNA ’01) who served until recently as CEO at Compass Point and now at Nonprofit Quarterly and in our MNA Advisory Board. Jeanne is also a well-known author of Nonprofit Sustainability other publications for the promotion of social impact with sustainable business practices among NPOs.
We are excited to engage in a panel conversation with Michael, Alexa and Jeanne on the past, present and future of nonprofits, its education and its capacity needs for effective leaders and organizations. Who can better represent our voice than one of our current MNA students, Sascha Rosemond (MNA ’19), who currently serves as Development and Donor Relations Assistant at the San Francisco Foundation.
Please join me to welcome Sasha, with Jeanne, Alexa and Michael to these conversations.
The University of San Francisco (USF) School of Management, in cooperation with student volunteers, administrative and faculty members, have compiled a career resource guide for current students, alumni, and prospective students of the Master of Nonprofit Administration (MNA) program. Resources have been provided through various sources including field research of philanthropic career opportunities, community outreach, faculty and student advisement, the 2017 GuideStar Nonprofit Compensation Report, and the 2017 University of San Francisco School of Management Graduate Career Services Career Resource Guide, which has been edited to fit the needs of students in the nonprofit program. These resources are designed to provide students with internship, fellowship, and volunteer opportunities, networking events, compensation reports, interview tips, resume templates, and tools for job searching for those pursuing a career in the nonprofit sector.
This project is also meant to bridge any gaps that may exist between USF and alumni of the MNA program. We would like to assist alumni in their own career paths or to engage alumni with current students to share their specialized advice from working in the field. This guide (including the handbook and the compensation report) will be accessible to all currently enrolled students in the full time and part time program using the USF Canvas system within the MNA Depot, and it will include all of the resources described above. The handbook will also be posted to the USF MNA website and will be accessible to the public including alumni. The compensation report has been purchased by the University of San Francisco School of Management from GuideStar.org and is for internal usage only due to restrictions placed upon the distribution of the report by GuideStar. Thus, this piece of the guide can only be accessed by currently enrolled students or those alumni who wish to physically visit USF to view the resource in person. This resource cannot be shared electronically by email.
Events will be announced to current students through the MNA Depot and to alumni and current students who are members of the MNA LinkedIn group page which can be found here: https://www.linkedin.com/groups/6752583. These events will include those hosted by USF and events hosted by outside organizations (typically occurring within the San Francisco Bay Area) for networking and volunteer opportunities.
The School of Management and the MNA Program at USF are excited to assist the growing needs of current students and alumni in their career development and professional endeavors in the philanthropic job market.
With the rise of corporate responsibility among for-profit corporations and the creation of benefit corporations and low-profit limited liability companies (Cooney, Koushyar, Lee, & Murray, 2014), the nonprofit sector is expanding and in the midst of being redefined. The leaders of these socially minded organizations are finding innovative ways to address social issues, redefining ways to measure social impact, creating new funding models, and are putting pressure on the nonprofit sector to professionalize. Today’s nonprofit leaders are being challenged to compete with these social enterprises while also being held to a higher set of ethical standards (Bowman, 2012). The ethical standards are substantially higher in the nonprofit sector because their mission is to provide a social benefit with income generated through donations and grants.
In order to keep up with the sector changes and its high ethical standards, it is difficult to find a nonprofit leader who possesses the experience and the skillsets needed to manage through changes such as these (Callanan, Gardner, Mendonca & Scott, 2014). According to Harry Jansen Kraemer, Jr. (2011).” Today, there is a widespread lack of confidence in leadership, in business, government, education and elsewhere. Every leader needs to regain and maintain trust. Value based leadership may not be a cure for everything that ails us, but it’s definitely a good place to start.” A value-based leader makes decisions and actions rooted in the leader’s ethical and moral foundation (Copeland, 2014). A leader’s values may include, but are not limited to honesty, open communication, humility, integrity, hard work, and compassion (Rao, 2015). By employing their values, a nonprofit leader not only makes decisions based on what’s right for the organization, but they also encourage others to act in a similar manner (Ethical Leadership, 2013). Even though they are leading their organization through difficult times and may not possess all the skillsets needed, a value based leader is able to instill a culture of ethical behavior among employees and volunteers, seek new revenues sources that align with their organization’s mission and the sector, and help create a sustainable organization.
Regardless of an organization’s size or mission, employees and volunteers alike respond to the moral cues of their leaders. The tone a nonprofit leader sets is critical in an organization’s culture of integrity (Ethical Leadership, 2013). Since no two people have the same set of values or moral judgment, a value based leader adopts and enforces a code of conduct and ethical policies to help clarify what is expected, to try and deter misconduct, promote trust, and minimize conflicts of interests (Rhode and Packel, 2009). Employees and volunteers look to the leader to determine what behavior is acceptable and what is not and will emulate those behaviors. The value-based leader encourages and sometimes demands others in their organization act in a similar fashion.
The leader’s values not only influence employees and volunteers, but also impact donors and the organization’s ability to fundraise. The values of the nonprofit’s leader play a critical part when it comes to earning and maintaining the trust of donors and managing their donations in an effective and transparent manner. With the value based leadership approach, the leader values doing what is right for the organization over the dollars (Rao, 2015). This isn’t to say value based leaders do not care about money; instead, the values of the leader and the organization make sure the revenue sources align with the values of the organization and are used effectively.
In addition, while developing new revenue streams, the value-based leader considers how clients and donors might view these new streams. The leader also considers which revenue generating activities are appropriate for the sector (Bowman, 2012)According to M.S. Rao (2015).” When leaders put profits before values and elevate their interests above others, their businesses are bound to collapse.”
A nonprofit leader has an important role in how an organization fulfills its mission. They also play an integral part in setting and enforcing the values and culture of the organization. Employees and volunteers reflect the values and ethics modeled by their leader. Donors look to the values of a nonprofit organization to determine whether they will invest their dollars or not. The values a leader exhibits in a nonprofit organization often outlive their tenure and can help or hinder the organization in the future. With the entrance of new social impact models, the call for increased transparency, the need to diversify revenue streams and report on the organization’s social impact, nonprofit leaders are faced with a diverse and complex set of challenges. In today’s environment, it is unlikely that a nonprofit leader will possess the experience or all the skillsets needed to lead through these changes. Despite all the challenges a nonprofit leader may face and the high expectation placed on them, a value based leader approach can help navigate through these complexities. By staying true to their values and doing what is right for the nonprofit organization, a value-based leader is able to effectively lead their organization through difficult situations and uncertain times. Not only will the strong ethics of the leader shine through, the strong ethics and values will live on within the organization for years to come.
Increasing Numbers Of US Students Choosing To Embark On Volunteer Tourism Gap Years http://bit.se/ityVZb
Volunteer Tourism and Third Sector
by Siana Amos, MNA ’17
The rapid growth of the volunteer tourism industry has sparked diverse debates among participants, researchers, and professionals. While some see international volunteering as invaluable, others question the impact and motives of participants and volunteer sending organizations. Critics have raised concerns over the role of sending organizations and the effect that commercialization has had on the nonprofit sector. These disputes have caused stakeholders and spectators alike to analyze the impact and potential ethical risks of these service opportunities. However, in spite of this controversial position, research suggests that the use of ethical learning frameworks could allow the volunteer tourism sector to use its recent popularity to enact change and do good.
The $173 billion volunteer industry attracts more than 1.6 million volunteer tourists each year and is one of the fastest growing trends in travel today (Kahn, 2014). While commercialization has significantly contributed to the growth of the industry, these business-like models and the rise of for-profit agencies are widely controversial within the social sector. Volunteer sending organizations serve to develop volunteer opportunities, arrange pertinent logistics, and facilitate relationships between volunteers and host communities. Those that hold 501(c)(3) statuses work to enhance social and environmental good, and maintain a commitment to invest all profits in organizational activities and programs. WorldTeach, a leading nonprofit sending organization, promotes itself as a key proponent of universal education and responsible global citizenship. Their two-fold organizational mission demonstrates their commitment to the students and host communities, as well as their sizable volunteer population. Global Volunteers seeks to organize international volunteer opportunities that embody their philosophy of sustainable development. This organization believes that adequately managed and supervised short-term programs have means to enact social change. In contrast, for-profit companies like Projects Abroad and Global Crossroad work to alleviate systemic injustices but do so in a manner that generates profits for stakeholders. This diversification has resulted in increased attention and contrasting reviews for the volunteer tourism sector.
The recent adoption of commercial methods has enabled and constrained international volunteer efforts. Although business-like models regularly increase financial success, these strategies often redirect efforts away from philanthropic goals and towards profitable advances. Commercial orientations force sending organizations to manage multiple stakeholder relationships and balance opposing dynamics that may arise if the needs and interests of consumers (i.e. volunteer tourists) fail to align with those of the receivers (i.e. local communities). Opponents of volunteer tourism argue that gaps in culture, background, and privilege create a lack of intercultural competence and sensitivity among Western volunteers. Critics have also questioned volunteers’ seemingly selfless motives given that several use the experience as means to build their resumes or college applications. Despite these various concerns, studies reveal that international volunteers thoroughly enhance organizational practices. Supporters argue that international volunteers continuously address labor shortage needs, provide resources, philanthropy, and social capital, increase the intercultural competence of local staff and clients, and introduce new skills and abilities to host communities (Lough, McBride, Sherraden, and O’Hara, 2011). However, while efforts clearly yield some valuable outcomes, the potential dangers of volunteer tourism demonstrate a need for improvement across the industry.
The use of ethical frameworks that prioritize empathy and respect in partnerships would be highly beneficial in intercultural contexts. The Fair Trade Learning Model is a global educational exchange that achieves reciprocity “through cooperative, cross-cultural participation in learning, service and civil society efforts” (Hartman, Paris, and Blache-Cohen, 2014). This model argues that equal partnership and transparency are essential to foster a just, equitable, and sustainable world. This framework believes that community-driven outcomes and volunteer learning are of equal importance, and argues that efforts are most effective when attention is given to community voice and direction. This approach envisions volunteer programs as mutual learning experiences and maintains that programs should implement reflection processes to complement volunteer experiences. The Fair Trade Learning Model believes that sustainability is possible if volunteers and partners are aware of how funds are used and if all contributions are aligned with the economic and social dynamics of local communities. As such, this comprehensive framework suggests that preparation, awareness, and reflection would produce ethically engaged programs and participants.
Volunteer tourism can also be applied through a transformative learning lens. Transformational learning sees dialogue and reflection as essential aspects of volunteer tourism and believes that both allow insights to be integrated into everyday life. This approach identifies self-actualization as an outcome of transformational learning and promotes critical thinking in the practice of volunteer tourism (Coghlan and Gooch, 2011). While volunteer tourism presents various challenges, the valuable and beneficial outcomes should not be overlooked. Thorough application of these learning frameworks would enable international volunteerism to move beyond the simple act of giving back and develop into an experience that is equally beneficial for volunteers, host communities, and society at large.
The University of San Francisco (USF) students who participate in the Academic Global Immersion (AGI-Rome) on Refugee Service Management know about Aleppo. They know about the crisis in Syria, the refugees coming through the Mediterranean to Europe and the current global humanitarian crises. Unlike some of the US presidential candidates, our students get to know refugee crisis and humanitarian solutions up close. Our Programs expose students to important knowledge in the field of refugee service, refugee international law, and policy issues related to forced migration.
Since 2015, our students from the Master of Nonprofit Administration (MNA) and Master of Public Administration (MPA) have been participating in a program of the School of Management (SOM) in an international immersion and study of refugees, humanitarian emergency and international organizations. The program involves expert speakers from the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR), Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) along with testimonies of refugees and visits to refugee welcoming centers such as the Centro Astalli.
Our USF students participating in the AGI-Rome develop their knowledge, sensitivity and cultural competence to better respond to the current global refugee crisis. They learn about Aleppo, Syria and other conflicts and human insecurity situations forcing people to leave their homes. They learn about European policies and international laws in relation to the refugee crisis. They learn first hand about the best responses from NGOs and IGOs engaged in the services, hospitality, regulations and security related issues with asylum seekers and forced migrants. They compare the EU situations with the US policies for refugee resettlement and the Brexit syndrome with the US nationalist and anti-immigrant rhetorics. They conduct applied research projects useful to the partnering organizations and helpful for their career trajectories. They present their funding in the annual conference on Refugees with San Francisco Bay Area refugee agencies and scholars and experts in forced migrations, human trafficking and human security USF4freedom.
Participants are able to earn a Graduate Professional Certificate in Humanitarian Emergency Management (HEM) for their own professional development and earn credit towards their graduate degree. Participants earn a certificate of participation in the Academic Global Immersion Program in Rome, Italy.
The University of San Francisco’s MNA Program is located A few minutes away from Rosie the Riveter Museum, a National landmark commemorating the power of women in the workforce during WWII (Rosie Visitor Center). The museum, with the weekly presence of the few still living ‘Rosies’ is a powerful reminder of what is possible during difficult times and with the determination of workers (mostly women) serving the country for a better future for all. The missions of our nonprofit organizations with its ambitious objectives mobilize many women and men to make the world a better place through health, education, advocacy, and many other necessary human services (Top NP Missions).
As we celebrate Labor Day in the Unites States (AKA May Day in the rest of the world), we recall the importance of integrating hard work with justice and dignity in the workplace. This is why nonprofits generally do not just strive to work efficiently and effectively for their services but also advocate for adequate policies and recognition of human rights, labour rights, environmental rights and other specific rights like disability, children, indigenous, etc. Integrating production with justice has been at the root of labor struggle and continues to be a priority in the nonprofit sector along social movements and unions seeking worker’s justice and dignity. This integration is inherently true in our social missions and it is gradually much better integrated in our own nonprofit workplaces (Overtime Regulations 2016).
The nonprofit sector, also known as the voluntary sector, is also rapidly professionalizing and requiring appropriate normative, comparative standards and specialized educational programs (see NACC). Of course the main drive for nonprofit workforce remains its dedication to the cause and ‘transformational leadership.’ But the value-based and mission-driven characteristics of ‘transformational leadership’ cannot be sustainable unless based on a relation of justice, dignity and fairness. In other words, the transformational spirit and dedication of the nonprofit workforce is and must be based on clear standards of transactional (contractual) leadership that aims at promoting fairness by avoiding exploitation while stimulating creativity and social innovation (Tavanti, 2008).
According to the The National Center for Charitable Statistics (NCCS) there are currently over 1.5 million nonprofit organizations in the United States. More than 188,000 organizations are tax-exempt and charity organizations registered in the State of California. It is difficult to quantify the number of nonprofits in the world as they diversify in the classification due to the financial, governance, and legal national specifications. Generally, we estimate there are about 10M nonprofits – social sector organizations in 196 countries. The largest number of registered nonprofit is in India (2M), followed by US (1.5M) and France (1.3M).
How do I form my own nonprofit organization?
The large number of registered non profits around the world demonstrates the significant impact of entrepreneurship and organizational activism in the social sector. It is also a personal expression of how people want to make a difference in the world and in our communities through innovative and new nonprofit organizations. The MNA program often receives requests for assistance in establishing new nonprofits and tax-exempt 501(c)3 organizations. To support these efforts and to promote sustainable and effective social sector organizations, we have created a list of resources to help you establish nonprofit and tax exempt organizations in the United States and the State of California.
Nonprofit Foundation Brainstorming
Begin the process by asking these important questions:
What is the social benefit and charitable purpose of the organization?
What kind of programming or core activities are you planning to do?
Who are the intended beneficiaries?
Are there existing nonprofits with a similar mission, and, if so, have you discussed your ideas with them?
Can your mission be furthered more effectively and efficiently by partnering with an existing nonprofit?
Can you attract sufficient resources to start and operate a new nonprofit?
What is your revenue plan and business plan (including a three-year projected budget)?
Are you familiar with the steps you need to take to start and run a nonprofit in compliance with the state laws and best practices?
Have you considered alternatives to forming a new nonprofit, such as fiscal sponsorship and donor advised funds, or business-social enterprises?
Will you need a an attorney and/or CFO to form the nonprofit and get it running? Read more here.
Establish a Nonprofit in 10 Steps
Step 1: PRELIMINARIES: Do we really need another organization? Preliminary market analysis and need assessment of other organizations and programs. Nonprofit, for-profit or hybrid? Check nonprofit organizations here.
Step 3: INCORPORATION: What state will you incorporate?Prepare the documents and forms necessary for the incorporation. Think about the entity type. Follow the application procedure of your state. Check California tips and resources here.
Step 4: BOARD: Who should be in your board?People should be invited to serve based on their qualifications and contributions in treasure, time or talent. Generally, boards have a minimum of a president (chair), a treasurer and a secretary. Hold your first board meeting appropriately (RONR) and document it with minutes. Check IRS exceptions here.
Step 5: BYLAWS: What are the essential documents of the organizations? A corporation’s bylaws includes the fundamental provisions related to the management of the activities and affairs of the corporation. Bylaws should also provide guidance to the board and reassurance of sound governance. You should also prepare other important documents such as the corporation’s policies and conflict of interest (COIs). The bylaws need to be approved by the board. Check the essential text of bylaws here.
Step 6: EIN: How do you obtain an employer identification number? An officer or authorized third party designee (e.g. attorney) may apply to obtain an EIN number for the organization. Check this to apply for an EIN online.
Step 7: REGISTER: What other registrations are required? In California an annual registration is required for nonprofit public benefit corporations to be filed within 30 days after receipt of assets (Form CT-1). It is also required to file a Statement of Information with the State Department (Form SI-100). Check here for the online forms.
Step 8: TAX-EXEMPTION: How do I obtain a tax-exemption status? Completing the Form 1023 application for exempt status under Internal Revenue Code (IRC) Section 501(c)(3) is a challenging process. Once you complete the federal tax exemption (IRS application) you will need to apply for state exemption (California Franchise Tax Board (FTB) and receive an affirmation of exemption letter from the FTB. Check here the IRS tools and instructions.
Step 9: FINANCIALS: Does the nonprofit need a bank account? Open a bank account and establish check signing procedures. To maintain tax-exempt status and establish a good governance practice in your organization is important to establish a prudent system of checks and balances when dealing with the finances of an organization. Check here for best practices and financial tools.
Step 10: COMMUNICATION: How do I make a good web presence? A professional website and active social media presence are a must for a serious nonprofit organization. There are a number of free web management tools such as WordPress.com that can be helpful with templates. Integrated contacts, fundraising and analytics are also becoming essential practices for successful, sustainable and effective nonprofits. Check for integrated solutions here.
Beyond these steps: There are other important elements that will be necessary to make your nonprofit effective with its mission. Please look at the additional competencies and resources in various areas of nonprofit management and leadership listed on the INNOVATION page and emphasized in MNA curricula.
Resources & Learn more
Click on the Logos of the Foundation Center and CalNonprofit for more information and resources: