April 30, 2018

Managing White-Collar Work: An Operations-Oriented Survey by Wallace J. Hopp, Seyed M. R. Iravani, and Fang Liu (

Definition of White-Collar Work:

Historically, the term ‘‘white collar ’’ has been used loosely to refer to salaried office workers, in contrast with hourly ‘‘blue-collar ’’ manual laborers (Shirai 1983). Other definitions of white- and blue-collar work are based on whether the worker performs manual work. For example, Prandy et al. (1982) used the term ‘‘white collar’’ to refer to non-manual labor, e.g., supervisors, clerks, professionals, and senior managers. Still other definitions of white-collar work have focused on job categories.

Quote Sandwich:

Hopp (2009) defines white collar and blue collar work as follows: “Other definitions of white- and blue-collar work are based on whether the worker performs manual work. For example, Prandy et al. (1982) used the term ‘‘white collar’’ to refer to non-manual labor, e.g., supervisors, clerks, professionals, and senior managers” (p. 2). Generally when used, white-collar work is used to describe a job that does not involve manual labor and blue-collar work is used to describe a job that does involve manual labor.


Hopp, W. J., Iravani, S. R., & Liu, F. (2009). Managing White-Collar Work: An Operations-Oriented Survey. Production & Operations Management, 18(1), 1-32. doi:10.1111/j.1937-5956.2009.01002.x

April 27, 2018 Freewriting

A stereotype that follows manual labor is that low income citizens tend to do these jobs because it does not require education and it is a simple job. Low income citizens have the problem of finding a job and because of this they tend to settle for jobs that are easily accessible. It is difficult to find humane jobs when you don’t have a proper education. It is difficult to gain a proper education when you can’t afford it. Many people are born in to families that aren’t fortunate to have the opportunity to go to school and get a degree.

White-Collar work is unfair because they purposely place people in inhumane standards and expect them to work like no tomorrow. This type of work should have laws placed in order to prevent abuse.

In my own experience with work, the environment is safe and the people seem amiable and happy to be working. My bosses and managers bring a positive work environment and help work through problems if there is one.

It not easy for people in low income areas to get out because it requires 10x the work they’re already put in, especially if they have kids, it makes it even harder. My mom grew up in a low income family and worked her way through college as a single mom and achieved her doctorate degree. This was definitely not an easy task considering both of her siblings are still low income families.

  • Manual Labor
  • Low Income
  • Education
  • Opportunities
  • Easy Accesible Jobs
  • Trouble “Getting Out”
  • Inhuman Standards
  • Exposure
  • Families

April 25, 2018

From my friends’ experiences work can be stressful. You have to stay on task and make sure you’re making progress. My friends used to work at a local tutoring center and would have to tutor young children in math and reading. Their task was to make sure the child was learning as well as doing their work. For the most part, their job was pretty easy and straightforward. Physically they weren’t exposed to extreme temperatures or anything inhumane. Mentally, they had to stay on track and make sure the parents were satisfied with their child’s progress. Work, intelligence, and social class don’t necessarily go hand in hand… A person with high social class is going to receive a job that doesn’t require a lot of work but may require some intelligence because they have connections. In opposition, a person from a lower social class will likely receive a job that requires hard manual labor just because they did not have the connections to get a better job or the funds to go to school to get an education for a better job.

April 20, 2018

April 18, 2018

My hometown is San Diego, CA. In San Diego, homelessness is a known issue, in fact, California is the has the highest population of homeless people. Here are some statistics about San Diego…

San Diego County is ranked (

— 10th nationally with 1,589 members of homeless families with children;

— 4th in percentage of homeless consisting of family members at over 18 percent;

— 7th in unaccompanied homeless youth, ages 18-24, with 1,160;

— 3rd with 1,067 homeless veterans; and

— 5th with 2,088 people considered chronically homeless

These statistics show just how present the homeless community is in San Diego. Living in San Diego, you see a huge population downtown, you’ll rarely see a homeless person alone. Usually a homeless person is supported by others in their community experiencing the same hardship. In San Diego, we have a homeless shelter called St. Vincent de Paul where the homeless can receive food, drinks, snacks, housing, etc. at no cost. St. Vincent de Paul also supports the community by providing housing, education, and daycare to families who qualify for the program. This system provides a support system to allow families to have the opportunity to get out of whatever situation they’re in.


April 09, 2018

For Essay 3 we had the idea of exploring our major Psychology. We will briefly discuss the different focuses of Psychology, mental illness, drugs, behavior, nature vs. nurture, etc. As for work division, we each have different topics to research and I am responsible for editing. Our timeline for accomplishing the project is 2 days before the assignment is due. We will both be responsible for finding and recording video clips.


You are required to analyze and use at least FOUR sources to support your project:
  • a textbook from the discipline (a book chapter, introduction, etc.)
  • one scholarly article from that discipline
  • one interview you hold with a professor or an expert from that discipline
  • the available sources from your program’s or department’s website, such as brochure, flyer or any useful description about the program.

March 26, 2018

Class, Race, and Culture has impacted my life and my individual learning. Speaking on social class, I grew up in an upper middle class family and I have always been surrounded by people of the middle class or upper middle class. I have not had much exposure to people of lower class. Growing up in my neighborhood of San Diego, CA, we are surrounded by mostly those consisting of the middle class and who’s race is either Caucasian, Mexican, or Asian. I have not experienced racism individually towards me, however, having Mexican friends I hear stories of expericences where they have experienced racism either at the border or randomly somewhere in San Diego. Lastly, I grew up expressing my Filipino side of the family, we tend to a eat a lot of tradition Filipino dishes and I can easily connect with someone who is Filipino. Overall, I realize that because of my background I have a lot of privilege that others do not have. I have never really experienced racism or have had problems financially. For me, it’s easy to learn in school and to find friends to connect with. I realize that I have a lot more opportunities than others, for example, I have had the priveldge of attending private schools my whole life, as well as my siblings. Some students are lucky enough to be put into a ‘decent’ public school. On behalf of friends, there are some public schools where teachers don’t care for the well-being of the student or the achievement.

March 09, 2018

After reading the information in Wikipedia about abortion, everything seems accurate and factual. Knowing the information contributed comes from many anonymous sources, does not change the way I evaluate the article. There are many references at the bottom of the page that cites sources. Wikipedia allows information from many perspective to be included into one page, the con of using Wikipedia is you don’t have one specific source, you have a whole bunch of sources gathered in one page. I think using Wikipedia is very helpful in understanding basic knowledge and information.

March 05, 2018

I used the website Top Universities which states “The rankings highlight the world’s top universities in 42 subjects, based on academic reputation, employer reputation and research impact.” Many of the colleges at the top of the list are historical schools known for educating philosophers, presidents, etc. Some of the schools are: 1) University College London, 2) Harvard University, 3) Stanford University, 4) University of Cambridge, and 5) University of Oxford. These universities are also some of the hardest to get accepted into in the world. I think that while these universities are highest on the list and they do have a history of quality education, just because a university is at the lower end of the ranking list does not mean it does not offer quality education. Think of it as while you may not be on Albert Einstein’s level of intelligence, it does not mean that you aren’t intelligent.



QS World University Rankings by Subject 2018 – Education. (2016, November 22). Retrieved March 05, 2018, from

February 28, 2018

Brandi Chang, Patricia Graham, and August Jeffrey.

Defined by the American Nutrition Association food deserts are “parts of the country vapid of fresh fruit, vegetables, and other healthful whole foods, usually found in impoverished areas. This is largely due to a lack of grocery stores, farmers’ markets, and healthy food providers.” Food deserts are caused by many factors, they are typically in areas where people often do not own a car and they arise in communities of color combined with low income. Studies show that wealthy districts have 3 times as many supermarkets than poor districts, white neighborhoods contain an average of 4 times as many supermarkets when compared to black neighborhoods. Grocery stores in African-America communities are usually smaller and have less selection.

About 23.5 Million people live in food deserts, nearly half of them are also low-income.  Due to limited options, many people living in food deserts have a hard time finding good that are culturally relevant and that meet their dietary restrictions, more often than not, people tend to get meals from fast food restaurants. Food deserts are not the only reason for the unhealthy eating habits of low-income neighborhoods. It also comes down to income and education and nutritional knowledge. When low-income people moved from neighborhoods with lower quality stores to neighborhoods with healthier options, their eating habits had almost no change.

Having people not be able to get the type of food they need is not fair to them, because there is nothing they can do to stop buying the packaged food that the small corner stores sell because that is all they have to choose from. The effect of these people buying the fast-food is that they become unhealthy, which is unfortunate. The relationship between food and social class here is that when these low income families live in these rural areas, in is a double negative because they only have the choice to buy unhealthy food which causes them to live even worse lives, this is a bad problem that America has that needs to be fixed.

USDA Food Desert Locator Map:

Top Worst Urban Food Deserts in the U.S.:

  1. New Orleans, LA – ” Researchers at the Congressional Hunger Center report that there are only 20 grocery stores in New Orleans, compared to 30 before Katrina, which means the average grocery store in New Orleans serves 16,000 people — twice the national average”
  2. Chicago, IL – ” In a typical Black neighborhood in Chicago, the nearest grocery store is roughly twice as distant as the nearest fast food restaurant.”
  3. Atlanta, GA – “When examined along racial lines, researchers found that there are four times as many supermarkets in predominantly white neighborhoods as in black neighborhoods.”
  4. Memphis, TN – ” The poll also ranked Memphis #1 for hunger in the country with a startling 26 percent of people in the Memphis Metropolitan Statistical Area saying they couldn’t afford to buy food for their families in the last 12 months.”
  5. Minneapolis, MN – “Researchers say food deserts, which covered about one-half of Minneapolis and nearly one-third of St. Paul as of 2006, are largely to blame.”
  6. San Francisco, CA – “In Hunters Point, some 40,000 residents travel miles to the nearest grocery store.”
  7. Detroit, MI – “Data from Mari Gallagher Research & Consulting Group, reports more than 550,000 Detroit residents live in areas defined as food deserts.”
  8. New York, NY – “A 2008 study conducted by the New York Department of City Planning estimates that as many as three million New Yorkers live in communities without enough access supermarkets.”
  9. Camden, NJ – “Camden, which consistently ranks among the poorest and most violent cities in the U.S., has just one major supermarket, a Pathmark near the city’s eastern border with Collingswood, and a smattering of other farmer’s markets, according to Camden.”




Florida, R. (2018, January 22). Food Deserts Exist. But Do They Matter? Retrieved February 28, 2018, from

Gallagher, M. (2011). USDA Defines Food Deserts. Retrieved February 28, 2018, from

Grant, A. (2017, January 25). Food Desert Information – Learn About The Causes Of Food Deserts And Solutions. Retrieved February 28, 2018, from

America’s Worst 9 Urban Food Deserts. (2016, November 08). Retrieved February 28, 2018, from

Food Deserts. (n.d.). Retrieved February 28, 2018, from

11 Facts About Food Deserts. (n.d.). Retrieved February 28, 2018, from


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