Christopher, Kristamps, and Cindy

  1. Drunk Drivers are involved in more than 50 percent of traffic deaths.

Constructed Argument. Further research of this statement reveals that 50% is not indeed the data point alcoholic related traffic deaths. The actual percentage is 28% per source of the CDC.

2. DNA tests of skin found under the victim’s fingernails suggest that the defendant was responsible for the assault.

Hard Evidence. The use of a DNA test used in a testimony is all that is required to know that this is hard evidence being presented to us, a jury, and a judge.

3. A psychologist testified that teenage violence could not be blamed on video games.

Hard Evidence. The statement alone is plausible because it talks about a trustworthy figure’s research. But upon further research this becomes more evident through an organization called ScienceNewsforStudents, this organization presents us with more psychologists and their finds that video games do not induce violence in kids.

4. The crowds at President Trump’s inauguration were the largest on record.

Constructed Argument. News media across the globe all came together to realize that this statement, which was said on live television while airing Trump’s inauguration, was an over exaggeration. The largest inauguration, presented by the news outlet Politifact,  was Obama’s 2009 inauguration.

5. “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”

Constructed Evidence. There is no support to this speech, this is simply just a presidents speech to his people about not fearing, at the time Nazi Germany, fear.


Directions: Read the following scenarios and decide whether it is a case of plagiarism or not.
(Y or N) and explain why.
Y, As stated in the statement, she does not mention her source, so she is claiming the information as her own research. 1. Kyoko needs to write a report on American politics. She looks up Barack Obama in Wikipedia and discovers he is the 44th president of the United States. She includes this information in her report but doesn’t mention Wikipedia.
Y, It doesn’t matter the context of your situation, unless you are told by an authority to not include reference you always include reference to your work in case someone else reads it from another time or place.
2. Tam is writing a paper on a novel for his English class. Since the whole class is reading the same book, he doesn’t need to use a citation.
N, When you are reusing your own work at the approval of an authority, citation is not needed as the credit is your own.
3. Sugi wrote a paper for his European history class last semester and got an A on the paper. This semester, his Political Science class is addressing some of the same issues that are in his History paper. He checks with his professor first who agrees with Sugi, so he uses the material from his History paper.
Y, If it seems to good to be true, then research the wording of the essay and find out if the exact statements come up in another article or research. In most cases this comes out to be plagiarism.
4. Ramiro, Stephan, April, and Chris are working on a group project. Chris submits his work and the others suspect that some of it came from the Internet, but it sounds good, so they submit it.
Y, Copying or rewording is okay when the source is referenced and credited. Here Maria does not seem to credit the source she rewords, so this is plagiarism. 
5. Maria finds a lot of good information for her paper on the Internet. She carefully changes the wording and prepares a good paraphrase. She doesn’t copy anything verbatim.
Directions: Decide whether the information described in each scenario will require citation of the source (Y or N) and explain why.
Y, Citation is always required when using a source at all. Regardless of the amount of times you say the source or how clear you say the source.
1. You clearly identify the source at the beginning of a paragraph that summarizes the author’s ideas about teenage drinking. Since readers will naturally assume all of the ideas in the paragraph are from the source, no additional citation is necessary.
N, This can be summed up to be common knowledge.
2. In your paper on the history of aviation you state the date of the Wright brothers’ first successful flight at Kitty Hawk.
N, this can be cited, but if it’s common knowledge, then it can be chalked up to common knowledge.
3. In a paper on the civil rights movement you find some general, well known background information in an encyclopedia. It is obviously common knowledge, so you copy the information and include it in your paper.
N, You wouldn’t cite you mother as she isn’t a reliable source, but researching her advice and information and connecting it to a source is citation required.
4. You ask your mother about the steps she went through in obtaining a bank load for a new car. You include this information in your paper.
Y, You used a book, which is a source of knowledge that you did not have before so you need to give the book its credit.
5. You skim a 325 page book entitled Using the Internet. A major theme throughout the book is that the Internet is an important technological achievement. You include this in your paper.
Y, you still need to reference who you reinforced your idea with. Regardless if you have the same idea, if you mention them, credit is due.
6. You find an article that takes the same position you have taken on the subject of gun control. To save time you summarize in your paper a portion of the argument from the article, since the author’s ideas are identical to your own.
(Excerpts above are from the following text: Clines, R.H & Cobb, E. R. (2012) Research Writing Simplified, 7th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.)