San Francisco Conservatory of Flowers welcomes delegates at UNCIO

A plaque commemorating the meetings of consultants contributing to the UN Charter in the Garden Room at Fairmont Hotel in San Francisco


  1. American Association for the United Nations (AAUU) 
  2. American Association of University Women (AAUW) 
  3. American Bar Association (ABA) 
  4. American Council on Education (ACE) 
  5. American Farm Bureau Federation (AFBF)  
  6. American Federation of Labor (AFL) 
  7. American Jewish Committee (AJC) 
  8. American Jewish Conference 
  9. American Legion  
  10. American Section of the International Chamber of Commerce 
  11. American Veterans Committee 
  12. Americans United for World Organization (AUWO) 
  13. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (Carnegie Foundation) 
  14. Catholic Association for International Peace 
  15. Chamber of Commerce of the United States  
  16. Church Peace Union (CPU) 
  17. Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) 
  18. Council on Foreign Relations (CFR) 
  19. Disable of American Veterans of the World War 
  20. Federal Council of the Churches of Christ in America 
  21. Foreign Policy Association (FPA) 
  22. General Federation of Women’s Clubs 
  23. Kiwanis International (KI) 
  24. Lions International (LCI) 
  25. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) 
  26. National Association of Manufacturer (NAM) 
  27. National Catholic Welfare Conference 
  28. National Congress of Parents and Teachers (NCPT) 
  29. National Council of Farmer Cooperatives (NCFC) 
  30. National Exchange Club 
  31. National Farmers Union 
  32. National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs 
  33. National Foreign Trade Council 
  34. National Grange 
  35. National Lawyers Guild (NLG) 
  36. National League of Women Voters (LWV) 
  37. National Peace Conference 
  38. National Education Association (NEA) 
  39. Railway Labor Executives Association (RLEA) 
  40. Rotary International 
  41. Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States 
  42. Women’s Action Committee for Victory and Lasting Peace 


Active but not officially invited: 

  1. American Library Association (ALA) 
  2. American Women’s Voluntary Services (AWVS) 
  3. Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen 
  4. Commission to Study the Organization of Peace 
  5. Free World Association 
  6. National Council of Jewish Women (NCJW) 
  7. Pan Pacific Women’s Association 
  8. Smithsonian Institute (SI) 
  9. Southern Baptist convention (SBC) 
  10. Save the Redwoods League, who proposed and organized the visit to Muir Woods  
  11. Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA)

Those who favored global governance 

  1. World Federalists 
  2. World Government Association
  3. Federal Union 

Those who attended but opposed international organizations

  1. Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) 

List of Consultants Representatives

Consultants and associates of the United States Delegation to the United Nations Conference on International Organization, 1945, San Francisco, Calif. Listing the names, offices, and local addresses of the individuals formally representing various American groups and associations participating in the United Nations Conference (among them, Walter White, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Mary McLeod Bethune for the NAACP). See original document at

Prominent Leaders

Read the full list of assigned consultants and associates for the 42 civil society organizations at UNCIO. Consultant List Information UNCIO

Clark Mell EichelbergerAAUN

James Shotwell, Carnegie Foundation

Walter Francis White, NAACP

W.E.B. Du Bois, NAACP

Mr. Clark Mell Eichelberger, was consultant at UNCIO representing the American Association for the United Nations (AAUN). He was a 20th-century American peace activist who previously served as a consultant to the League of Nations Secretariat and became (1938) national director of the League of Nations Association (LNA). In 1945, the association’s name changed to the American Association of the United Nations (AAUN), and Eichelberger served as its executive director until 1964, when he became vice president of the United Nations Association of the USA (UNAUSA) through 1968.

Dr. James Shotwell, was consultant at UNCIO representing the Carnegie Foundation. He was a Canadian-born American history professor who played an instrumental role in the creation of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1919. He promoted the inclusion of a declaration of human rights in the UN Charter. In May 1944, he and a group of colleagues published a “Design for the Charter of the General International Organization” to succeed the ruined League of Nations that influenced later drafting at Dumbarton Oaks.

Mr. Walter Francis White was consultant an UNCIO representing National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). He was a prominent American civil rights activist who led NAACP for almost 26 years after joining the organization as an investigator on lynching practices. He conducted numerous legal challenges to segregation and disfranchisement, and achieved many successes.

Dr. William Edward Burghardt (W.E.B.) Du Bois was was a member with Ms. Walter White of the three-person delegation from the NAACP to UNCIO in 1945. Du Bois is a well-known American sociologist, historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist, prolific author and one of the founders of the NAACP in 1909. His NAACP delegation wanted the United Nations to endorse racial equality and to bring an end to the colonial era. He drafted a proposal that pronounced “[t]he colonial system of government … is undemocratic, socially dangerous and a main cause of wars”.Yet, the proposal received support only from China, Russia and India, and was virtually ignored by the other major powers. Although the NAACP proposals were not included in the United Nations charter, after UNCIO Du Bois published Color and Democracy: Colonies and Peace, a book that attacked colonial empires. Influencing the drafting the UDHR in 1948, Du. Bois submitted petitions to the UN concerning discrimination against African Americans such as “An Appeal to the World: A Statement on the Denial of Human Rights to Minorities in the Case of Citizens of Negro Descent in the United States of America and an Appeal to the United Nations for Redress” (1947) that laid the foundation for the later report and petition called “We Charge Genocide” (1951). , submitted in 1951 by the Civil Rights Congress.[245] “We Charge Genocide” accuses the U.S. of systematically sanctioning murders and inflicting harm against African Americans and therefore committing genocide.

Consultants & Observers

Images of Civil Society Consultants and Observers who participated with the Delegates at UNCIO

Consultants dinner, Empire Room at the Drake, May 22, given by the Lions Club. Dr. Helen Reid, A.A.U.W.  22/May/1945. San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/x.

Consultants Meeting, May 17. Miss Dorothy Detzer of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom questions the speaker.

James Carey, CIO; Mrs. Johnstone, National League of Women Voters at the Lions Club dinner for Consultants to the United States Delegation.

Philip Murray, the first president of the United Steelworkers of America (USWA), Consultant to the United States Delegation. San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/Otto.

Clark Eichelberger, Director of the American Association for United Nations, UNCIO 01 June 1945. 22/May/1945. San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/Rosenberg.

Dr. A. H. Reinhardt, American Association of College Women, UNCIO 01 June 1945, 22/May/1945. San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/Rosenberg.

W. W. Lancaster, Foreign Policy Commission, UNCIO 01 June 1945. 22/May/1945. San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/Rosenberg.

Wounded servicemen attend a Plenary Session in the Opera House. Delegates of fifty nations met at San Francisco between April 25 and June 26, 1945. San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/Rosenberg.

Martin Popper, National Lawyers Guild; Miss Doris Cochrane, State Department; at the Lions Club dinner for Consultants to the United States Delegation. 22/May/1945. San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/Rosenberg.

Consultants dinner, Empire Room at the Drake, May 22, given by the Lions Club. Max Gottschalk of the American Jewish Committee. 22/May/1945. San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/Rosenberg.

Western Union boy listening to address at the Opening Plenary Session. San Francisco, United States. UN Photo/Mili.

Wounded Veterans arriving at Opera House for the Second Plenary Session, 27 April 1945.

Press row, Opera House, 28 April 1945. Partial view of the Press Row at the Opera House.

Dean Virginia Gildersleeve, U.S. Delegation, addressing audience in the Civic Center on 30 April 1945 at rally sponsored by the Free World Association and Americans United.

Pan American barbecue and tour given in honour of the Delegations of the Pan American Nations, Sonoma, Sunday, May 27.

Archbishop John Joseph Mitty (fourth Archbishop of San Francisco) meeting with T.V. Soong during a Cocktail Party at the Colonial Room of the St. Francis given by Madame and T.V. Soong, 1 June 1945. to celebrate that on that day T.V. Soong became Premier of China.

UNCIO Delegates get Honorary Degrees–This is a general view of the audience at ceremonies at the Greek theater of the University of California in Berkeley during which a number of officials and delegates to the United Nations Conference on International Organization received honorary degrees.

See more images of UNCIO consultants and UNCIO related events:


UN FLICKR ALBUM: Founding of the UN – San Francisco Conference.

Resources to know more

NGO Consultative Status Today

Non-governmental, non-profit public or voluntary organizations may be admitted into a mutually beneficial working relationship with the United Nations by attaining consultative status with the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). This status is based on Article 71 of the Charter of the United Nations and on ECOSOC Resolution 1996/31 adopted in 1996. The rights and privileges enumerated in detail in ECOSOC resolution 1996/31, enable qualifying organizations to make a contribution to the work programmes and goals of the United Nations by serving as technical experts, advisers and consultants to governments and Secretariat. Sometimes, as advocacy groups, they espouse UN themes, implementing plans of action, programmes and declarations adopted by the United Nations. In concrete terms this entails their participation in ECOSOC and its various subsidiary bodies through attendance at these meetings, and also through oral interventions and written statements on agenda items of those bodies. In addition, organizations, qualifying for General Category consultative status, may propose new items for consideration by the ECOSOC. Organizations granted status are also invited to attend international conferences called by the U.N., General Assembly special sessions, and other intergovernmental bodies.

Currently there are 3187 NGOs in consultative status with the ECOSOC and some 400 NGOs accredited to the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD), a subsidiary body of ECOSOC. Read more here>>

Civil society organizations can also establish a relation with the United Nations Department of Global Communication (UN-DGC, formerly UNDPI) that organizes annual conferences on NGOs and related themes of concern at the United Nations. Youth involvement is key to the success of the UN Civil Society Conferences. The UN Department of Global Communications Civil Society Youth Representatives Steering Committee advises the Department on strategies to engage young people serving non-governmental organizations and youth-led organizations affiliated with DGC on advocacy and outreach activities, with particular focus on the planning process for UN Civil Society Conferences. Read more here>>

Access and search the current list of NPOs/NGOs with consultative status at the United Nations ECOSOC: Advanced search for Civil Society Organizations>>

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